Bypass Protein Supplementation
Bypass Protein is usually the first limiting nutrient for cattle and buffeloes fed low quality forages. All ruminants derive their protein requirement from two sources. One is rumen un-degraded feed protein that gets enzymatically digested in the abomasums and small intestine and another source of protein is rumen microbes. The microbial fermentation of soluble protein in the rumen is an unavoidable consequence of digestion and under many circumstances; it is a wasteful process because high quality proteins are broken down to ammonia, excess converted to urea in the liver and excreted through urine. The solubility of proteins change when subjected to special chemical treatment, advantage of which is to protect good quality proteins from rumen degradation. Number of chemicals like acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ethanol, tannic acid, acetic acid, sodium hydroxide etc. have been tried to protect proteins. Amongst all, aldehyde suggested for protection of protein, formaldehyde has been extensively used for production of bypass protein feed.
Characteristics for Protein Supplements
High level of crude protein.
Optimal essential amino acids profile.
About 70-75 per cent of the protein to be in a rumen un-degradable form (UDP).
Approximately 80 percent of the rumen un-degradable protein to be digestible in the small intestine.
Nutritional properties of formaldehyde treated protein meals
UDP value of commonly available protein meals
Protein meal CP (per cent) UDP (per cent)
Rapeseed meal 37.0 34.0
Sunflower meal 28.0 31.0
Soyabean meal 46.0 36.0
Groundnut meal 39.0 33.0
Guar meal 48.0 39.0
Cottonseed meal 38.0 51.0